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Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Fourth Edition (TONI-4)

Linda Brown, Rita J. Sherbenou & Susan K. Johnsen

A practical, easy-to-use, norm-referenced instrument that measures an individual's intelligence

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Age range: 6 years through 89 years and 11 months

Qualification level: B

Year: 2010

Administration time: 15 to 20 minutes

Administration type: Individual

The Test of Nonverbal Intelligence – Fourth Edition is a practical, easy-to-use, norm-referenced instrument that measures an individual’s intelligence. The administration and response format are pragmatic with simple oral instructions, requiring test takers to answer only with simple but meaningful gestures such as pointing, nodding, or blinking. This test is ideal for those who have language, hearing, or motor impairments, or are not familiar with mainstream American culture. Data was collected from a normative sample of 2,272 people residing in 33 states.

The TONI-4 has two equivalent forms: Form A and Form B. Each form consists of 60 items, all of which are abstract/figural (i.e., void of pictures or cultural symbols), thus educational, cultural, or experiential backgrounds will not adversely affect test results. All items are arranged in easy-to-difficult order. Each item contains one or more of the eight salient characteristics:

  1. shape
  2. position
  3. direction
  4. rotation
  5. contiguity
  6. shading
  7. size
  8. movement.

Easier items contain one or two characteristics while more difficult items contain several. Both forms can also be used for research purposes and periodic re-evaluation.


  • All normative data was collected to ensure proper representation of demographic changes in the U.S. population.
  • Stratification variables include the four geographic regions in which subjects reside, their gender, race and ethnicity, parental education, and family/household socioeconomic status.
  • Potential bias in test items related to gender, ethnicity, disability, and race is analysed.
  • Additional test reliability and validity is offered for the entire normative sample and also for specific subgroups of the sample to account for cognitive ability, race, ethnicity, and gender.
  • Each test item was re-evaluated using both item analytic techniques and differential item functioning analyses.
  • Floor effects have been eliminated.
  • Verbal and pantomime directions are provided.
  • In addition to English, included are instructions in seven other major foreign languages: Spanish, French, German, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, and Tagalog.